consists of three summits: to the west, the shira plateau, to the east Mawenzi peak and between the two the snow-capped summit of Kibo which reaches 5894 meters. It’s the roof of Africa. There are several ways to reach the top: Marangu route (to the east) is the most popular, Machame (to the west), Umbwe and Mweka (to the south) are more demanding.
Is a conical volcanic mountain reaching a height of 4,566m above sea level and is the fifth highest in Africa. The mountain is within Arusha National Park, which came into existence in 1960 when the wildlife area around the Momella Lakes and Ngurudoto Crater were officially declared a protected area. Three to four days is the recommended time for climbing the mountain. The best time to climb Meru is from June to February, although it may rain in November. The best views of Kilimanjaro from Meru are between December and February.
volcano, altitude 2886 meters (9524 feet), is a unique and extremely fascinating volcano that towers above the East African Rift Valley in Northern Tanzania, just south of Lake Natron. It is the only volcano in the world that sometimes erupts natrocarbonatite lava, a highly fluid lava that contains almost no silicon. Natrocarbonatite lava is also much cooler than other lavas, being only about 950 degrees F (510 degrees C) compared to temperatures over 2000 degrees F (~1100 degrees C) for basaltic lavas. Natrocarbonatite is the most fluid lava in the world. Lava with a low gas content can flow like a whitewater stream, and actually has a viscosity near that of water. Natrocarbonatite lava glows orange at night, but is not nearly as bright as silicon-based lavas since it is not as hot.
During the day it is not incandescent; most flows look like very fluid black oil, or brown foam, depending on the gas content. In the past, some visitors to the crater believed they were seeing mud flows. Most newly solidified lava is black and contains crystals that sparkle brightly in the sun. There are also sometimes small flows known as “squeeze-ups” that are light gray when they flow and harden. Contact with moisture rapidly turns natrocarbonatite lava white because of chemical reactions that occur when the lava absorbs water. Eventually the water absorption process turns lava flows into soft brown powder.
During dry weather the whitening of flows happens over a period of a few days to a couple of weeks, depending on the thickness of the flow. In rainy weather the lava surface turns white immediately. In parts of the crater that have been inactive for several months, the ground is light brown/white and so soft that one sinks into it when walking.
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